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Antagonism of Artemisia Endophytic Fungi against Fusarium as Causal Agent of Basal Plate Rot on Shallot

Agrotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Ir. Sutami Street 36 A, Surakarta (Solo) 57126, Indonesia
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(Received : April 1, 2019; Accepted : June 10, 2019)


Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. cepae is one of the obstacles on shallot (Allium cepa L.) production in Indonesia. The usage of Artemisia endophytic fungi was not researched as exogenous fungi on shallot plant to control F. oxysporum. The study aimed at examining kinds of Artemisia endophytic fungi and the ability of its inhibition rate, both in vitro and in vivo against F. oxysporum. The research was carried out in Laboratory of Plant Pest and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret in a completely randomized design. This research began by isolation of Artemisia endophytic fungi before antagonism test against F. oxysporum in vitro and was continued with in vivo test. In vivo test was carried out with seven treatments, five endophytic fungi of Artemisia, control of pathogen, and control without pathogen nor Artemisia endophytic fungi. The observations of in vivo test were severity of basal plate rot, height of plant, the total number of leaves and saplings and also fresh weight of plant. Artemisia endophytic fungi that were successfully isolated from Artemisia leaves were Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp., Aureobasidium sp. 1 and Aureobasidium sp. 2. Pencillium sp. gave the best inhibition rate in vitro i. e. 50%, while the best inhibition in vivo was Aureobasidium sp. 1. Both Penicillium sp. and Phoma sp. had mechanism of competition against F. oxysporum. Cladosporium sp. was suspected that produced inhibitor compound, while Aureobasidium was suspected which produced VOC.
Key words :Inhibition rate, in vitro, in vivo, growth, basal plate rot