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Crossability and Phenotypic Evaluation of a Himalayan Rye Landrace (Secale cereale L.)

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411 (Punjab), India
*(e-mail:; Mobile: 94175 63329)
(Received: January 27, 2023; Accepted: March 10, 2023)


Wide hybridization helps to transfer the alien chromatin into the cultivated species, which is helpful for
the development of pre-breeding material. The phenotypic characterization and growth stages of a Himalayan rye were recorded, which provided information regarding the adaptability in the north-west region of India. Wide hybridization was done among the bread wheat and Himalayan rye to check their crossability relationships and the effect of 2, 4-D applications on crossability. Three treatments i.e. control, spraying and injection were used to assess the effect of 2, 4-D. A successful seed set was observed in all six genotypes of bread wheat, and a maximum crossability percentage of 42.3 was observed in the HD 4672 × Himalayan rye cross. A significant difference was observed between the control and the treatments. A paired t-test showed significant difference between control and spray treatment (t = -3.8125) and control and injected treatment (t = -2.0296). In addition, it was observed that the Himalayan rye was completely self-incompatible and cross-pollinated in nature, as seeds were formed only in the spikes that were not covered with the butter paper bag. However, the seed set was not noticed in the spikes that were covered with butter paper bags because the spike covered with bag promoted self-pollination, which led to self-incompatibility in rye and resulted in no seed formation in the spike. The 2, 4-D treatment was found effective irrespective of the genotypes used for crossing which indicated thar it can be used to get a respectable seed set from a bread wheat x rye hybridization program.
Key words : Landrace, Himalayan rye, wheat, wide hybridization, 2, 4-D, self-incompatible