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Geographical Classification with Principal Component Analysis Related to Chemical Attributes and Non-destructive Assessment of Sweetness of Indian Mangoes Using Chemmometrics

Department of Physics, Lovely Faculty of Technology and Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering and Physical
Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara -144 411 (Punjab), India
*(e-mail:; Mobile: 90410 61879)
(Received: June 25, 2022; Accepted: July 22, 2022)


Aim of the present study was to measure the different nutritional parameters with standard methods of
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC). Different parameters of Indian mango pulp like
carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, moisture, ash content, pH, total soluble solid (TSS)
and energy value were determined along with correlations. The best correlation between the energy,
moisture and carbohydrate content was established and expressed with the regression equation. Singular
value decomposition under the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on all chemical data to
know the classification of the data. The present study also established a green and non-destructive
method to predict the sweetness of mango using near infrared spectroscopy together with chemmometric
approach. The spectra was recorded for the 51 different homogenized Indian mango pulp within the
range of 700-2500 nm and then wavelength selection method was applied to reduce the wavelengths for
prediction. Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) and second order derivative were used to pre-process
the original spectra and Partial Least Square regression method to develop the prediction model for
sweetness analysis of mango. Coefficient of determination for calibration (Rc2) as well as for validation (Rv2) gave the results more than 0.9 for both pH and total soluble solid. The value of coefficient of determination for calibration and the value of root mean square error for calibration (RMSEC) for pH was presented as 0.9945; validation and validation (RMSEV) was presented as 0.9945 and 0. The results indicated that NIR spectroscopy along with chemmometrics gave the promising results and was an efficient method to calculate the sweetness of mango fruit with green and non-destructive way.
Key words : Alkaline protease, central composite design, optimization, Bacillus, response surface