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Health Risks from Heavy Metal for Medical Toothpastes Derived from Herbal in Iraqi Pharmacies

Department of Laser and Optoelectronics Techniques Engineering, Engineering Technical College, Al-Furat Al-
Awsat Technical University, AlNajaf, Iraq
*(e-mail: ali.alham[; Mobile: 078011 03720)
(Received: June 15, 2022; Accepted: July 19, 2022)


Although toothpastes are considered as topical cosmetics that are not normally ingested, it is evident
that they may contribute to the introduction of heavy metals through buccal and gastrointestinal
absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the heavy metals such as zinc, iron and lead in
herbal toothpastes used in Iraq. Heavy metal analysis was conducted by using atomic absorption
spectroscopy. Also, some carcinogens and non-carcinogens parameters (human health risk) due to zinc,
iron and lead concentrations were calculated, such as chronic daily intake (CDI), total non-cancer risk
(HI) and total cumulative cancer risk (TCCR). Results showed that the average value of zinc, iron and
lead for all toothpastes were 44.55±37.72, 205.81±63.45 and 6.42±1.15 mg/kg, respectively. In the case
of human health risk, the average values of HI and TTCR were 0.009±0.001 and 2.25±0.76 x10-6, respectively.
Zinc and lead for most samples in the present study were within the limits for WHO standards. While,
iron concentrations in all toothpaste’s samples fell outside the limits for WHO standards. HI and TTCR
analysis revealed that toothpastes were safe from heavy metal related to health risk.
Key words : Heavy metals, toothpastes, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Iraqi pharmacies