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Chemical Profiling and Identification of Phytochemicals from Microwave-assisted Extract of Kinnow Peel Using LC-MS and its Fortification in Biscuits

School of Chemical Engineering and Physical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411
(Punjab), India
*(e-mail:; Mobile: 79884 80084)
(Received: June 27, 2022; Accepted: July 28, 2022)


The purpose of the current study was to analyze the phytochemicals using LC-MS extracted from kinnow
peel and its fortification in biscuits. The extract was made utilizing environmentally friendly methods,
like the microwave. The identification of phytochemical extracts through liquid chromatography-mass
spectrophotometry revealed six flavones, five flavon-3-ol, four flavanones, four lignans, one isoflavonoid, four anthocyanins and anthocyanidin dimers, one dihydrochalcone, seven hydroxycinnamic acids, two hydroxybenzoic acids and one stilbene in the extract. The extract also had phytochemicals such as α- carotene, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), fatty acid (linolenic acid) and fatty amide (docosanamide). Furthermore, by substituting kinnow peel for wheat flour, biscuits with varying peel concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% were developed. The sensory evaluation found that adding peel increased the strength of aroma, taste and colour. However, adding more than 10% was not acceptable in terms of taste. According to proximate studies, supplementation significantly boosted dietary fibres, ash and protein content in the biscuits. As a result, kinnow peel extracts can be used as valuable components in a variety of foods and medications. Kinnow peels, which are generally discarded as garbage, could be added to biscuits to make them more flavourful. According to the study, adding kinnow peels could enrich biscuits and had positive effects on their nutritional and sensory qualities. It is possible that the effective use of this fruit waste as a potent natural functional food may help to solve issues like industrial waste management and nutritional stability. In addition, utilizing the microwave process can help the environment by consuming less time, energy, and solvent.
Key words : Antioxidants, kinnow, LC-MS, phytochemicals, microwave extraction