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Green Synthesis, Characterization and Stability Analysis of ZnO Nanoparticles Doped with Different Cu Concentrations

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail:; Mobile: 97297 66137)
(Received: September 7, 2023; Accepted: November 10, 2023)


In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles doped with copper (Cu) at different concentrations were synthesized via green synthesis using lime juice. The ZnO formation was confirmed through the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in all samples and crystallite sizes between 32 and 52 nm were obtained. Adding Cu and increasing its concentration caused a blue shift in the UV absorption of the samples and the band gap energy increased from 3.3 to 4 eV. The images obtained from the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and morphological studies showed the change in the shape of nanoparticles from flake-shaped for pure ZnO to irregular-shaped for doped ones. However, the growth of grains was of the nano range and size of the produced particles was smaller than 60 nm. The Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study of the samples also proved the presence of zinc oxide. Observing peaks at 3416 to 3447/cm showed the presence of moisture in nano-powders. Finally, the results from zeta potential characterization showed a good stability of nanoparticles in colloidal at lower pH proving the role of citric acid available in the lime juice to enhance the stability and prevent sediment. The optical and band gap properties of the nanoparticles were engineered by the addition of different concentrations of Cu and the stability of the materials was improved by the change of the pH of the solution.
Key words : Green synthesis, ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO, UV-Vis, band gap energy, zeta potential