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Optimizing Energy Consumption in Sustainable Wheat Cultivation in Iraq Based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Benchmarking Techniques

Agricultural Machinery and Equipment Department, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq
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(Received: March 03, 2023; Accepted: April 9, 2023)


A study was conducted to investigate the energy inputs and outputs of wheat production in Iraq. The main energy inputs for tillage, fertilizing and other operations were human labor, machinery and fuel. These inputs were used at an average energy expenditure of 4132.06 MJ/ha for fertilizing and 1773.87 MJ/ha for harvesting. The majority of the energy inputs came from machinery and fuel, with human labour contributing
a small percentage. The average wheat yield in the studied area was 4033.96 kg/ha, with an energy productivity of 0.56 kg/MJ. This meant that for every unit of energy input, 0.56 units of wheat were produced. The net energy gain and energy intensity of the wheat crops were 45, 238.30 and 1.79 MJ/kg, respectively. It was concluded that energy was acquired through wheat production in Iraq. The total energy inputs can be divided into direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable forms, with the majority being direct and non-renewable. A benchmarking analysis found that the same level of wheat productivity might be reached with fewer energy input and that farmers in the area of study possibly would save 24.14% of human labour input through suitable work planning and administration. Additionally, a benchmarking analysis identified potential reductions in energy usage in machinery and pesticide applications. Farmers also wasted a significant portion of the machinery, chemicals and seeds they used.
Key words : Bio-technique, cultivar, machinery, optimization, wheat