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Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus Lemon Combination on Some Local Bacterial Isolates

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
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(Received: January 26, 2023; Accepted: March 9, 2023)


The current study was conducted to estimate the synergistic anti-bacterial action of a combination of ground cloves and crude lemon juice as natural anti-bacterial. Combination of citrus lemon (lemon juice) and Syzygium aromaticum (dried flowers of clove) possessed significant antibacterial effect on hazardous bacteria. The antibacterial activity was estimated by different bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes by means of agar well diffusion method (cork borer method). The results showed a strong anti-bacterial activity of clove-lemon combination in comparison with anti-bacterial activity of each one of them alone. Also, in comparison with clove soaked in boiling water, clove soaked in drinking water, as well as the effect of the lemon juice alone. Among the tested bacterial species, B. subtilis exhibited maximum inhibition with 30 mm diameter of zone of inhibition, followed by S. aureus (25 mm), E. aerogenes (25 mm), E. coli (23 mm), P. aeruginosa (20 mm) and K. pneumonia (18 mm). In conclusion, the use of herbs/fruits combination improved the efficacy of benefits of both phytogenic components by taking advantages of their synergistic and additive effects. It was preferred over other chemical options, mainly being natural in origin. The combination of clove and lemon exhibited antibacterial activity that indicated the synergism action of both the antibacterial activity of clove and lemon combination higher than if they were used separately.
Key words : Syzygium aromaticum, citrus limon combination, phytogenic combinations, synergistic action