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Multivariate and Statistical Evaluation of Water Quality of Various Irrigation Resources in Shivalik Region of Himalaya, India

Nitin Kamboj, Neeraj Pandey, Vishal Kamboj, Aditi Bisht and Bhavya Trivedi
Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri (Deemed to be University), Haridwar-249 404
(Uttarakhand), India
*(e-mail :; Mobile : 8840836461)
(Received : April 12, 2021; Accepted : June 18, 2021)


Different sources are present in the Himalayan region by which the irrigational demand gets satisfied.
This study aimed at evaluating the variation in the water quality among four types of water resources as
spring water, groundwater i. e. deep aquifer (government tube-well) and shallow aquifer (private tubewell) and Ganga canal of the Shivalik region, Haridwar, India. For evaluating the irrigation water quality
of these water resources, irrigation evaluation indices and statistical tools viz., Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlations were used. The findings showed that amongst these water
sources government tube-well (deep aquifers) showed the lowest dominance of physico-chemical
parameters followed by private tube-well (shallow aquifers), spring water and Ganga canal. The principal
component analysis showed that EC, TDS, hardness, calcium, sulphate and nitrate were the most
dominating parameters, while the Ganga canal had the highest dominance of all minerals as compared
to other water sources in both the water types. Besides this, irrigational water quality indices showed
good quality of all water resources which can be used efficiently in the field for irrigation. This study
showed that the selected four different water sources of the Shivalik region of Haridwar had a significant
variation in terms of irrigational water quality.
Key words : : Irrigational water quality, Shivalik region, groundwater, surface water, principal component analysis