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Assessment of Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Health Risks for Selected Heavy Metals of Egyptian and Saudi Arabia Cheeses in Iraqi Markets

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq
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(Received : January 4, 2022; Accepted : March 11, 2022)


The atomic absorption technology is used to study differences in concentration in heavy metals (Pb, Cd
and Cr) between Egyptian and Saudi Arabia of cheese samples available in Iraqi markets. Carcinogenic
risk (CR) and Non-carcinogenic, Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) and Hazard
Index (HI)) health risks due to Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations were determined in all samples of the
present study. The average value of EDI for Pb, Cd and Cr in Egyptian samples was 1.34±0.24, 0.05±0.01
and 0.07±0.026 µg/kg/day; while in Saudi Arabia samples was 1.57±0.21, 0.05±0.01 and 0.07±0.035 µg/
kg/day, respectively. Further, the average value of HI for Egyptian and Saudi Arabia samples was
0.457±0.07 and 0.522±0.06, respectively. In addition, the average values of CR × 10-6 for Pb, Cd and Cr in
Egyptian samples were 0.005±0.0008, 0.303±0.08 and 1.25±0.44, while in Saudi Arabia samples were
0.006±0.0007, 0.314±0.09 and 1.16±0.59, respectively. Statistically there no significance of heavy metals
as well as health risk parameters in cheese samples between Egyptian and Saudi Arabia. Thus, it can be
concluded that all samples of cheese obtained from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia in Iraq markets had no
health risk according to Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations.
Key words : : Heavy metal, carcinogenic health risk, Egyptian cheese, Saudi Arabia cheese, Iraq markets