Miloudi Hilali, Hanae El-Monfalouti, Larbi El-Hammari, Nadia Maata and Badr Eddine Kartah
Laboratory of Plant Chemistry and Organic and Bioorganic Synthesis, Faculty of Science, University MohammedV, Av. Ibn Battouta, BP 1014 Agdal-Rabat, Morocco
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(Received : March 2, 2021; Accepted : May 10, 2021)
Aim of present study was to establish the standards of virgin argan oil i. e. physico-chemical characteristics and the chemical composition of virgin argan oil (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, Sapotaceae). Five different samples were selected by method of extraction (mechanical pressing from roasted and unroasted argan fruits) samples from different regions of Morocco (south and north of Morocco). The study of the physico-chemical characteristics showed that the acidity of virgin argan oil did not exceed 1%; the results of the peroxide number were less than 2.50 meq O2/kg, the rate of low unsaponifiable ( 0.81%) and the refractive index of argan oil varied between 1.4644 and 1.4705. The found values of the specific extinction of virgin argan oil varied between 0.228 and 0.426. The results of the chemical composition of virgin argan oil showed that argan oil contained 80% unsaturated fatty acid, which was oleic-linoleic type and rich in sterols (142 to 225 mg/100 g). The majority sterols were schottenol and spinasterol. The results of analysis of tocopherol levels showed that virgin argan oil was richer in tocopherol (597 to 775 mg/kg). The study of the triglyceride fraction of argan oil showed that the triglycerides OOO, LLO, POL, OOL and POO were in the majority. The wax results showed that the wax content of argan oil was low (70 mg/kg). The study demonstrated that the high quality of argan oil was extracted by mechanical pressing. The results will support the marketing of argan oil around the world.
Key words : : Argan oil, chemical composition, marketing, mechanical pressure, virgin oil