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Role of Nanotechnology in Advancement, Automation and Miniaturization of DNA Fingerprinting

Department of Biochemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119 (Haryana), India
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(Received : August 4, 2017; Accepted : October 10, 2017)


DNA fingerprinting has revolutionized the approach towards the role of DNA from hereditary molecule to an identification tool in bio-chemical research, medical diagnostics and forensic investigations, etc. Ever since its discovery by Watson and Crick in 1956, several techniques to analyze DNA molecule have been discovered. Manual isolation of DNA has been automated by efficient robotic methods. Miniature thermal cyclers based on microfabricated integrated fluidic systems have made possible to incorporate PCR and Capillary Electrophoresis into one assembly. Lab-on-a-chip technology integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip which can hold extremely small amount of sample. Several methods like GeneChip, Biochipset have been demonstrated and are being developed which have made possible to construct a portable workstation based on Rapid DNA analysis that will perform all the processes of DNA isolation, amplification and separation of amplified products and generate DNA profile on the spot in only 90 min. It is now becoming possible to sequence hundreds of thousands DNA molecule in parallel and generate DNA profiling rapidly and more efficiently with the help of Next Generation Sequencing based on nanotecnology. Exploitation of MALDI-TOF MS in DNA analysis has further offered the advantages of short analysis time, automation and accuracy in SNP and STR analysis as well as to identify the source of biological material.

Key words : DNA, GeneChip, Microarray, MALDI-TOF-MS, lab-on-a-chip, Next Generation Sequencing